The phase separation of the polyimide-ceramic hybrid depends on the nature, content, synthesis method and synthesis conditions of the inorganic materials. The size of the phase separation ranges from 1 nm to several tens of microns. The main way to reduce the size of the phase separation is to increase the compatibility of the two phases and limit the aggregation of the inorganic particles. The coupling agent can serve both functions at the same time, and is particularly effective for reducing the phase separation size.
It was observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the majority of the microparticles separated in the hybrid system were dispersed in the polyimide matrix in discrete spheres. Inter-particle interconnections, agglomeration and the like can also be observed. Micro-phase separation of the inorganic phase still exists micro-structure, such as hollow structure, core-shell structure, can also see the surface porosity and active groups and other residues. There are some interactions between the two phases, such as chemical bonding, hydrogen bonding, coordination and semi-interpenetrating networks. Even TiO2, ALN ultrafine powder dispersion system also has interface adsorption, interspersed and so on.